The theme of a new or second exodus...occurs throughout the canonical book of Isaiah, but becomes especially prominent in chapters 40-55...Most scholars see these chapters as the work of Second Isaiah, an exilic prophet, although some attribute the whole canonical book to pre-exilic Isaiah of Jerusalem. There is no doubt that chapters 40-55 are addressed to the exilic community and whether they originated in a pre-exilic or an exilic situation, we must primarily consider their impact on an exilic audience.
This provides further contrast with ANE parallels where the annual rhythmic cycle of nature was identified with the repetition of the events of primeval time. Second Isaiah does not identify the new exodus as a return to the old in ‘a great historical cycle’, but a linear progression in Yahweh’s purposes for history. This heightening means that the ‘new exodus will be a radically new event. It will surpass the old exodus not only in wonder but also in soteriological meaning’.
...the new exodus from Babylon does not merely constitute an idealised paradigm for God’s saving activity, but is the means by which the grand eschatological horizon foreseen by Second Isaiah is to be realised in the future. The inevitable eschatological consequences of the new exodus are telescoped into the event itself. Yahweh’s post-exilic people in Israel still awaited these consequences.